1984 vocabulary p1-11

読書、調べた単語。George Orwell 1984

His work is characterised by lucid prose 彼の作品は、明快な文章が特徴です。

polemical journalism 極論的なジャーナリズム

allegorical novella 寓話的小説 allo(=other)+agoreúō(=speak)擬人化した動物などに例えて教訓・風刺などを織り込んだ話。”動物農場”など。

dystopian novel δυσ- (dus-, “bad”) + τόπος (tópos, “place, region”) 暗黒郷

an account of his experiences soldiering for the Republican faction 共和党派の兵士として戦った経験記

p3~

to prevent a swirl of gritty dust 埃が舞わないように (gritty 派生で現実的な It’s a gritty crime drama.
それは現実的な犯罪ドラマ)

ruggedly handsome features. ゴツゴツしたハンサムな顔立ち。

Hate week 人工的憎悪強化週間みたいなもんか?

lift-shaft =エレベーターシャフト=エレベータの通り道の縦穴空間

It was one of those pictures which are so contrived that the eyes follow you about when you move. それは、動くと目がついてくるように工夫された絵の一つだった。(形容詞contrived 無理して作った, 不自然な)

p4~

pig-iron 銑鉄 

http://www.tsujilab.mtl.kyoto-u.ac.jp/01TsujiLab/Education/AdvStruMetalMater/2018/0524_04/2018_04_Slides.pdf より引用

metal plaque 金属の額(がく)、他 血小板 バッジ 歯垢(病理 斑)

even through the shut window-pane, the world looked cold. 閉め切った窓ガラス越しでも、世界は寒々としていた。 pane 硝子板いちまい

ビッグ・ブラザー - Wikipedia

The blackmoustachio’d face gazed down from every commanding corner. ≒everywhere a commanding height 眺望のきく高台.

(poster)flapped fitfully in the wind 風に吹かれてはためき Fit 発作 発作的に→不規則に

(helicopter) hovered for an instant like a bluebottle,  矢車草、蒼蠅、(Britain, Australia, Ireland, slang, derogatory) A police officer.(From the colour of the uniform.)、カツオノエボシ 電気クラゲ アオスジアゲハ

p5~

he thought with a sort of vague distaste 漠然とした嫌悪感を感じながら思った

p6

sordid colonies of wooden dwellings like chicken-houses 鳥小屋みたいな木造家屋の不潔なコロニー

brightlit tableaux 明るく華やかな絵画 tableaux タブロウ フランス語

p7~

The Ministry of Love, which maintained law and order. 法と秩序を維持するための「愛の省」

only by penetrating through a maze of barbedwire entanglements 有刺鉄線の絡まった迷路を通ってからでないと

barb : From Middle English barbe, from Middle French barbe, from Old French barbe (“beard, beard-like element”). Doublet of beard.

truncheon /ˈtrʌn.tʃən/ トランチュン! a short stout club used primarily by police officers 警棒

picture of truncheon

p8

gulped it down 急いでごくっと飲む感じ

the burning in his belly died down ・・・〔火などが〕小さくなる、次第に消える、下火になる・The fire is dying down. : 火が消えかけている。

held it upright 直立 アップライトピアノはストリングが直立

quarto-sized blank book・・・ほんのサイズ。四つ折りパンフレット。昔使われた。

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_size

alcove アルコーブ (alcove)とは凹んでいる部分の事。日本では居室エントランス部の凹んでいる部分の事をいう。(壁などの)入りこみ、凹所、床の間。

File:Interior of the Villa Ephrussi de Rothschild - DSC04555.JPG

From French alcôve, from Spanish alcoba or Portuguese alcova, from Arabic القُبَّة‎ (al-qubba, “vault, chamber with vaulted roof”).

alcove (n.)
“vaulted recess,” 1670s, from French alcôve (17c.), from Spanish alcoba, from Arabic al-qobbah “the vaulted chamber,” from Semitic base q-b-b “to be bent, crooked, vaulted.” The al- is the Arabic definite article, “the.”

p9

frowsy =dingy, neglected, scruffy appearance だらしない (浮浪児とでも覚えよう)

Even with nothing written in it, it was a compromising possession. 危険な持ち物

名誉[評判]を傷つけるような,疑いを招くような.
be in a compromising situation 疑われてもしようがない状況に陥っている.

Avoid placing yourself in a compromising situation. 李下に冠を正さず.

Winston fitted a nib into the penholder ペン先をペンホルダーに入れた。

Neb  noun SCOTTISH•NORTHERN ENGLISH noun: neb; plural noun: nebs a nose, snout, or bird’s beak.

Nib noun: nib; plural noun: nibs 1. the pointed end part of a pen, which distributes the ink on the writing surface. a pointed or projecting part of an object. “slide the tile into place until the nibs hook on” 2. shelled and crushed coffee or cocoa beans. 3. a speck of solid matter in a coat of paint or varnish.

he had procured one, furtively and with some difficulty 彼は手に入れた、コソコソと苦労して。

furtive Borrowed from French furtif (“stealthy”), from Latin fūrtīvus (“stolen”), from fūrtum (“theft”), from fūr (“thief”). (ちなみにおならはfart)

p10~

He dipped the pen into the ink and then faltered for just a second. : lose strength or momentum 文脈では躊躇した。例文 The faltering economy

A sense of complete helplessness had descended upon him. 完全に無力感に襲われていた。helplessness=無力感

Learned helplessness 学習性無力感 長期にわたってストレスの回避困難な環境に置かれた人や動物は、その状況から逃れようとする努力すら行わなくなるという現象 他の訳語に学習性絶望感、獲得された無気力、学習性無気力

to pin down (date) (日付を)特定すること

His mind hovered for a moment round the doubtful date on the page, and then fetched up with a bump against the Newspeak word DOUBLETHINK.

fetched up with a bump it’s a very old saying, but it would generally mean something catches up with you not that you would accidentally bump into something.

DOUBLETHINK 作中では「相反し合う二つの意見を同時に持ち、それが矛盾し合うのを承知しながら双方ともに信奉すること」と説明されており、舞台となっている全体主義国家では民主主義などは存立しえない、という事実を信じながら、なおかつ、国家を支配する「党」が民主主義の擁護者である、というプロパガンダをも同時に信じるなど登場人物の思考に大きな影響を与えている。

predicament 苦境 (pre dictate 宣言する前が語源)

strident military music 激しいうるさい軍楽

p11

and a slight booziness caused by the gin.

booziness boozy bowse From Middle English bousen, from Middle Dutch būsen, buisen, buysen (“to drink heavily”) (Dutch buizen). Related to Middle High German būsen (“to swell, inblow”). More at beer.

shedding first its capital letters and finally even its full stops 文頭の大文字を抜かしたり句読点さえ最後に抜かしたり。

shed : get rid of , drop

full stops: period

Sheds is often used to describe animals shedding fur — they’re losing fur, just as he is losing his capitals and full stops. It doesn’t appear to be a conscious decision, just something that happens in his panic, in his speed to get his words down. He is in such a hurry he no longer wants to slow down to observe the niceties of grammar — it’s the basic message that’s important.

Ministop begins charging for plastic bags at two Chiba stores | The Japan  Times
etymology minute stop

Last night to the flicks. 昨晩は映画館へ。

mid-15c., “light blow or stroke,” probably imitative of a light blow with a whip. Earliest recorded use is in phrase not worth a flykke “useless.” Meaning “quick turn of the wrist” is from 1897 in sports. As slang for “film,” it is first attested 1926, a back-formation from flicker (v.), from their flickering appearance.

flicker (v.)
Old English flicorian “to flutter, flap quickly and lightly, move the wings,” originally of birds. Onomatopoeic and suggestive of quick motion. Sense of “shine with a wavering light” is c. 1600, but not common till 19c.

NETFLIXって”ネット映画館”。

first you saw him wallowing along in the water like a porpoise 最初はイルカのように水の中でのたうち回っている彼を見て

porpoise ネズミイルカ 

What’s the difference between a dolphin and a porpoise - Sketchplanations
https://sketchplanations.com/dolphin-porpoise より引用

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